INTRODUCTORY ESSAY TO OUR EXPLORATION OF MONSTROSITY
Explanation of Color Scheme/Spatial Metaphors of Site
Glossary of Terms
The Oxford English Dictionary lists five definitions for monster:
1. Something extraordinary or unnatural; a prodigy, a marvel.
2. An animal or plant deviating in one or more of its parts from the normal type; spec.,
an animal afflicted with some congenital malformation; a misshapen birth, an abortion.
3. An imaginary animal (such as the centaur, sphinx, minotaur, or the heraldic griffin, wyvern, etc.)
having a form either partly brute and partly human, or compounded of elements from two or more
4. A person of inhuman and horrible cruelty or wickedness; a monstrous example of (wickedness,
or some particular vice).
5. An animal of huge size; hence, anything of vast and unwieldy proportions.
The word 'monster' in America today can mean all of these things, though in the common vernacular it is
generally used as 3 and 5 above: 'Monsters' are creatures we become on Halloween; we drive 'monster' trucks
and look for jobs on 'Monster.com.' 'Monster' implies largeness, a quality almost universally admired in
American culture. But what does the existence of monsters (as 'imaginary' animals) in a culture signify?
A culture's monsters emblematically embody its most acute anxieties. Cultures create and ascribe meaning
to monsters, endowing them with characteristics derived from their most deep-seated fears and taboos.
The body of the monster, then, becomes the site of these cultural proscriptions, representing the taboos of the
societies that spawn them: "the monster's body quite literally incorporates fear, desire, anxiety, and fantasy
. . . , giving them life and an uncanny independence" (Cohen 4). A monster cannot be contained. A monster
disobeys its master, overspills its margins, consumes its benefactors. We make scapegoats of our monsters,
attributing to them our own misdeeds and faults while using them as vehicles for intergenerational transfers of
taboos and morals.
The monster becomes a way of explaining the seemingly inexplicable. The humanoid form most monsters
assume is our own--familiar yet unfamiliar--and transgressions performed by the monster reinforce its status as
'other:' "In its function as dialectical Other or third-term supplement, the monster is an incorporation of the
Outside, the Beyond--of all those loci that are rhetorically placed as distant but originate Within" (Cohen 7).
A monster dwells on the fringes of what is culturally acceptable (Grendel). Banished to the physical and social
hinterlands, he is also border guard (Sasquatch). Whoever crosses into the monster's realm has also transgressed,
broken the taboo, courted contamination. The transgressor must then encounter the monster on its own terms.
In Totem and Taboo, Sigmund Freud writes that taboo, originally a Polynesian word, means something
that is simultaneously sacred and profane (821). Taboo does not solicit silence nor encourage ignorance, but
demands rather an awareness and deliberate avoidance of the sacred/profane object or action. Taboo is
characterized by a "dread of physical contact . . . . [and a conviction] that violation will be followed by
unbearable disaster," which is not necessarily "external" or physical (828). The violator of a taboo likewise
becomes taboo and must be avoided. Freud writes that the transgressor "has the dangerous property of
tempting others to follow his example . . . . He is therefore really contagious [emphasis mine], in so far as
every example incites to imitation and, therefore, he himself must be avoided" (832).
Acknowledging that any system of categorization is somewhat arbitrary, subject as it must be to the
caprices and whims of its creators, we propose four categorical rubrics of origination for our discussion of
monstrosity, with the premise that each monster symbolizes one or more cultural taboos: Reanimated
Monsters (once-dead monsters revived); Ecological Monsters (monsters with environmental origins);
Human Monsters (genetic freaks and psychotics); and Technological Monsters (monsters coming into being
through the (mis)application of technical knowledge). Such a taxonomy allows for the cross categorization
of monsters with multiple narratives of origin (thus the vampire might be viewed as both a human and a
reanimated monster). A table of taboos and monsters is included within this site, encouraging comparisons
and debates about the meanings of the monsters and their relations to one another. Furthermore, each over-
view contains a "Monster Blender" which visually depicts the melding of related creatures, reinforcing the
similarities of the monsters and ourselves. Perhaps the horror derived from cinematic and literary monsters
stems from the latent monstrosity that lurks within each and everyone of us.
Click here for the Childhood Monsters Essay
Macbeth: Hero or Monster?
An “archetype” is considered to be the original on which many other ideals are based. For example, we have archetypal heroes that often come from ancient mythology. Of course, it isn’t just contemporary society that influences a writer. In fact, one of the major influences on almost all literature is mythology. There are many mythologies, but most are known for having archetypes that many writers will base their own heroes or characters on. If you look at religious writings, literature, movies, and speeches, you will see a lot of influence from archetypal models.
One of the most familiar archetypes in storylines is “banishment from an ideal world.” We see this as the very first story in the Bible and in many ancient mythologies. We can easily use this archetype to begin an analysis of Shakespeare’s tragic play Macbeth. In it, the character of Macbeth is told of his future as a king of Scotland, and this begins a chain of events that leads to the tragic outcome. In the play, greed ultimately destroys Macbeth’s potentially bright future, and he and his wife are banished from what may have been a glorious life. Time and again, an analysis could demonstrate each of the “wrong turns” Macbeth and his wife made and compare this to the ignored warnings inherent in most of the archetypal stories of banishment from an idealized world.
MacBeth is a character that can be seen as a tragic hero. His downfall was contributed to by the fact that witches told him his prophecy. Lady MacBeth manipulated him and held strong influence over his judgment. In addition to that, his ambition and strong desire to become king leads to his fall. His character starts to decline from that of someone once seen as a noble person to that of a violent man. He becomes a monster because he is victimized by the witches, manipulated by his wife, and brought down by in ambition.
He seems to be the evil villain when he kills his best friend in order to be king, and yet he feels incredible guilt for the acts that he has committed, something that a real monster would not feel. Regardless of his actions, he retains a guilty conscience which continues to taunt him until his death. This guilty conscience is something that follows him from the start of the play, when his first murder is committed, until he ends up a man with twisted morals and twisted faith.