Research Paper On Mars Rover

SANTA FE, N.M. — With NASA's sample-caching 2020 Mars rover mission just around the corner, the best strategy for hauling Red Planet rock and dirt to Earth is a now a topic of considerable discussion and debate.

Spoiler alert: Rocketing pieces of Mars to our planet isn't an easy task! 

To grapple with the scientific, technological, and policy issues that come with such a robotic venture, NASA has created a Returned Sample Science Board (RSSB). A half-day workshop on where this effort now stands took place here July 23, before the 80th annual meeting of The Meteoritical Society, which was held July 24 through July 28. [Pieces of Heaven: A Brief History of Sample-Return Missions]

An objective of the workshop was to familiarize the international sample-analysis community with the Mars 2020 rover mission. That six-wheeled robot is being equipped to collect samples and cache them on Mars for future pickup and delivery back to Earth.

Ripe for the picking

NASA's Mars 2020 rover is scheduled to lift off in July or August 2020 and set down on the Red Planet in February 2021. At the moment, there are three landing site candidates, all of which are deemed good candidates to harbor evidence of past Mars life, if it ever existed. A decision on the final touchdown spot is expected next year.

"Mars 2020 will gather samples for potential return to Earth in the future. It’s time for the sample-analysis community to get serious about defining and prioritizing Mars sample science, and in helping to make the case for the future missions that would get those samples home," said RSSB co-leader David Beaty, chief scientist for the Mars Exploration Directorate at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. 

Hurling back to Earth pieces of Mars has been deliberated for decades, Beaty said, with the space science community patiently waiting for the time when such a robotic mission was feasible. "Well, it's getting real and the opportunity is there," he told Space.com. "But if we're not careful, it's possible to squander the opportunity."

Seeking signs of life

Caching a set of returnable samples is a top requirement for the 2020 rover, said Ken Farley, project scientist for the mission at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.  

The intent is to use the Mars machinery, Farley said, to find and characterize ancient habitable Martian environments, identify rocks with the highest chance of preserving signs of ancient Martian life if it were present, and, within those environments, seek the signs of life.

Specifically, the robot is capable of acquiring 37 "scientifically enticing" samples in total. But the prime mission duty is to snare 20 samples over 1.5 Mars years, Farley said. The samples will be encased in tightly sealed tubes and cached for later recovery by a follow-on lander, which is not officially on NASA's books yet. [NASA's Mars Rover 2020 Mission in Pictures (Gallery)]

Shooting gallery

Joe Parrish, deputy manager of the Mars Program Formulation Office at JPL, detailed several possible sample-return strategies. "We're looking at a variety of mission architectures to do that," he said. 

One involves a small "fetch rover" that gathers up and moves the samples to a stationary Mars Ascent Vehicle, or MAV. Other ideas involve a larger solar- or nuclear-powered rover that's mobile and hauls around a MAV on its back for ship-and-shoot purposes.

"The stock price as of today is higher" for the fixed MAV and fetch-rover concept over a mobile MAV, Parrish said, "but these stock prices fluctuate up and down." Engineers are delving into the pros, cons and challenges of all the concepts, he added.

Once propelled off the Red Planet by the MAV, the encapsulated specimens would enter Mars orbit for rendezvous and pickup by a solar electric propulsion orbiter. From there, the grab-and-go courier service plan might involve shipping the samples directly back to Earth for a high-speed desert landing, Parrish said.

The Mars samples could also be taken to the Earth-moon system for linkup with NASA's proposed Deep Space Gateway/Orion spacecraft facility, Parrish said. From there, a human crew could bring the Mars goods home to Earth.

Handling the samples

Scientists are already thinking about how to handle Mars samples here on Earth, said Francis McCubbin, astromaterials curator within NASA's Johnson Space Center's Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Division in Houston.

"Curation doesn’t begin when the samples come back. It doesn't begin when they arrive on Earth. And it doesn't begin when you're building a spacecraft," McCubbin said. "Curation begins at the inception of the mission."

McCubbin said that Mars sample-return is going to present some distinctive challenges. For instance, Mars — along with Jupiter's moon Europa and the Saturn satellite Enceladus — is designated as a Planetary Protection Class V restricted Earth-return body. This term, he said, is reserved for cosmic objects deemed to be of significant interest to the process of chemical evolution and/or the origin of life. 

Catch and release

In regard to Mars rock and soil, there is a need to conduct, under strict containment and using approved techniques, timely analyses of the unsterilized sample collected and brought to Earth. 

"If any sign of a non-terrestrial replicating entity is found, the returned sample must remain contained unless treated by an effective sterilizing procedure," McCubbin said.

Before any Mars specimens are released to the general scientific community for study, McCubbin said a "Sample Pre-Release Report" must be prepared to certify that the sample will not harm Earth’s biosphere. This report verifies that biohazard and life-detection protocols have been carried out and that samples are safe for release, he said.

There is a body of research and techniques now used, in addition to know-how using high-level biosafety facilities, that can help guide the proper handling of Mars samples, McCubbin said. 

"Mars sample-return will present some unique challenges, but, honestly, I think the world is ready for this," he said.

Workshop message

As the workshop wrapped up, RSSB co-leader Harry McSween, of the Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville, said: "I hope everyone leaves this workshop with the belief that this is real now." 

"We are developing the technological ability to collect these samples and bring them back home," McSween said. "What is missing is the will. And the will is going to have to come from lobbying by the science establishment, particularly the sample community. I hope you'll take that message back."

EDITOR'S RECOMMENDATIONS

Copyright 2017 SPACE.com, a Purch company. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

FULL LISTNEWSEARCH

ROVER TECHNOLOGY



Rover technology development and infusion for the 2009 mars science laboratory mission
free download
Abstract This paper provides an overview of the rover technology development, integration, validation, and mission infusion process now being used by the NASA Mars Technology Program. Described are the rele- vant mission scenarios of long range traverse and

Technology development and testing for enhanced Mars rover sample return operations
free download
Abstract:This paper describes several Jet Propulsion Laboratory research efforts being conducted to support Mars sample return in the coming decade. After describing the 2003/05 mission scenario, we provide an overview of new technologies emerging from

Advanced robotics technology infusion to the NASA Mars exploration rover (MER) project
free download
Abstract: This paper presents four new technology developments and their infusion into the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission. These technologies were not ready for infusion prior to the launch of this mission. Three of these new capabilities are designed to increase the

Rover technology for open-path spectroscopy surveys
free download
Abstract Rover technology is presented for executing mobile surveys using a distributed spectrometer for open-path, in situ remote sensing. A low-cost research rover prototype was created to verify mobile survey algorithms for a specific absorption spectrometer being

Mars Rover Technology Workshop
free download
A return to the surface of Mars has long been an objective of NASA mission planners. The ongoing Mars Rover and Sample Return(MRSR) mission study represents the latest stage in that interest. As part of NASA's preparation for a possible MRSR mission, a technology

ROVER TECHNOLOGY: ENABLING SCALABLE LOCATION-AWARE COMPUTING
free download
ABSTRACT: Rover stands for Remotely Operated Video Enhanced Receiver. Rover is next generation of Bluetooth, infrared cellular services. Rover technology can be ranging from power full laptop to simple cellular phones. The technology which enables the scalable

Lunar Rover Technology Demonstrations with Dante and Ratler N95-23694
free download
Carnegie Mellon University has undertaken a research, development, and demonstration program to enable a robotic lunar mission. The two-year mission scenario is to traverse 1,000 kilometers, revisiting the historic sites of Apollo 11, Surveyor 5, Ranger 8, Apollo 17

Planetary rover technology development requirements
free download
Roger J. Bedard Jr. and Brian K. Muirhead Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology 4800 Oak Grove Drive Pasadena, California 91109 and Dr. Melvin D. Montemerlo and Murray S. Hirschbein National Aeronautics and Space Administration Office of Aeronautics

Rover functional autonomy development for the mars mobile science laboratory
free download
Abstract:This paper provides an overview of the rover technology development, integration, and validation process now being used by the Mars Technology Program. Described are the relevant mission scenarios of long traverse and instrument placement,

An integrated system for multi-rover scientific exploration
free download
Abstract This paper describes an integrated system for coordinating multiple rover behavior with the overall goal of collecting planetary surface data. The Multi-P~ over Integrated Science Understanding System combines concepts from machine learning with planning

Obstacle avoidance and safeguarding for a lunar rover
free download
Abstract We are developing techniques for safeguarding the remote operation of lunar rovers. This paper presents two complementary techniques: One, based on stereo vision, evaluates the traversability of paths the rover could follow, and produces preferences for

CRAB-Exploration rover with advanced obstacle negotiation capabilities
free download
ABSTRACT Many exploration rovers have been proposed in the past, but none was compared to other systems. Therefore, this paper not only introduces the locomotion concept CRAB, but also compares it to other rovers regarding obstacle negotiation capabilities.

Planning and control algorithms for enhanced rough-terrain rover mobility
free download
Abstract Future planetary exploration missions will require rovers to perform difficult tasks in rough terrain, with limited human supervision. Many current motion planning and control algorithms do not consider the physical characteristics of the rover and its environment,

MICRO PLANETARY ROVER" MICROS
free download
Abstract This paper describes a newly developed rover with small size, light-weight, low power consumption. In recent years, many researchers have extensively studied and developed unmanned mobile robots for surface exploration of the moon or planets. A

The challenges of designing the rocker-bogie suspension for the Mars Exploration Rover
free download
Abstract Over the past decade, the rocker-bogie suspension design has become a proven mobility application known for its superior vehicle stability and obstacle-climbing capability [1, 2]. Following several technology and research rover implementations, the system was

FIDO: a Field Integrated Design Operations rover for Mars surface exploration
free download
Abstract We overview our recent development and testing of the FIDO rover, an advanced technology prototype for long range mobile planetary science. The current rover is capable of semi-autonomously navigating to, and gathering multi-modal science data from widely

Stereo perception and dead reckoning for a prototype lunar rover
free download
Abstract. This paper describes practical, effective approaches to stereo perception and dead reckoning, and presents results from systems implemented for a prototype lunar rover operating in natural, outdoor environments. The stereo perception hardware includes a binocular

The CMU Rover.
free download
Abstract An advanced camera-equipped mobile robot is being built at the ChlU Robotics Institute to support research in control. perception, planning and related issues. It will bc used initially to continue and extend visual navigation work (the Cart Project) completed in

An integrated walking system for the Ambler planetary rover
free download
Abstract The CMU Planetary Rover project is developing the Ambler, a six-legged robot designed for planetary ex-ploration. We have developed reliable and efficient control, perception, and planning algorithms suitable for navigating rugged terrain. The

SMC rover: planetary rover with transformable wheels
free download
Abstract: We are proposing a new planetary rover system called SMC rover. This system consists of one main body and some wheel units, which are detachable and able to work as child rovers, called Uni-Rover. Trial models of Uni-Rover and SMC rover have been

Rover mobility performance evaluation tool (RMPET): a systematic tool for rover chassis evaluation via application of Bekker theory
free download
ABSTRACT With the current focus set on detailed investigation of the scientific hot spots on the surface of Mars, it has been noticed that the current range of autonomous robotic explorers are facing a grave problem in the form of highly hostile terrain. It has been the

Autonomous navigation system for planetary exploration rover based on artificial potential fields
free download
Abstract In this paper a navigation system for an autonomous planetary exploration rover, based on artificial potential fields, is presented. The rover moves to a predefined final position avoiding the obstacles detected by an artificial vision system developed for that

Analysis and simulation of a rocker-bogie exploration rover
free download
Abstract Rovers will continue to play an important role in planetary exploration. Plans include the use of the rocker-bogie rover configuration. Here, models of the mechanics of this configuration are presented. Methods for solving the inverse kinematics of the system

Chassis concepts for the ExoMars rover
free download
Following support provided to the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2002, for the in-house work on the Pre-Phase A activities of the ExoMars Mission of the Aurora Exploration Programme, RCL was contracted by ESA in summer 2003 to provide technical

Ambler: a six-legged planetary rover
free download
Abstract:The goal of the CMU Planetary Rover project is to prototype an autonomous mobile robot for planetary exploration. We have con-struct�d a six-legged walking robot, called the Ambler, that features orthogonal legs, an overlapping gait, and a scanning laser

Rover traverse science for increased mission science return
free download
Abstract:Rover traverse distances are increasing at a faster rate than downlink capacity is increasing. As this trend continues, the quantity of data that can be returned to Earth per meter traversed is reduced. The capacity of the rover to collect data, however, remains


FREE ENGINEERING RESEARCH PAPERS

0 thoughts on “Research Paper On Mars Rover

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *