Introduction to the Pharmaceutical Industry
...Introduction Discovering and bringing one new drug to the public typically costs a pharmaceutical or biotechnology company from £800 million to more than £1 billion and takes an average of 10 to 15 years. The drug discovery and development process is designed to ensure that only those pharmaceutical products that are both safe and effective are brought to market. PPD provides a broad array of drug discovery and development services and products to pharmaceutical, biotechnology and medical device companies to expedite drug development, from drug discovery through clinical studies and post-approval support. New drugs begin in the laboratory with scientists, including chemists and pharmacologists, who identify cellular and genetic factors that play a role in specific diseases. They search for chemical and biological substances that target these biological markers and are likely to have drug-like effects. Out of every 5,000 new compounds identified during the discovery process, approximately five are considered safe for testing in human volunteers after preclinical evaluations. After three to six years of further clinical testing in patients, only one of these compounds on average is ultimately approved as a marketed drug for treatment. The following sequence of research activities begins the process that results in development of new medicines: •Target Identification. Drugs usually act on either cellular or genetic chemicals in the body, known as targets, which are believed...
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Introduction to Sugar Industry
...Introduction The world sugar market is experiencing considerable changes in prices. The global sugar stocks, which had been plunging constantly, experienced its lowest in 2010-11 at 165.68 million tonnes. This was due to the drought conditions occuring throughout the world, leading to lower production. However, high demands for sugar has caused a surge in the market prices. World sugar prices dropped in 2012, due to a “bumper crop” around the globe which lead to the decrease in international sugar prices. In 2012 the global production increased by 6% to 171 mn tn from 162 mn tn when comparison to the last year. Increase in production will be seen in 2012-13 majorly due to the rise in production in Brazil and China. International demand for sugar is anticipated to highten in 2012-13 but at a slow rate. Brazil is the major producer and exporter of sugar, and is termed as the "global trading nation". Brazil has acquired a position as the "price-setter" in the world sugar market. Recently, the production costs increased in Brazil and in other major export countries like Australia and Thailand, which has resulted in an increase in the value of their currency in comparison to dollars. In India, sugar production increased by 6.6% in 2011-12 to 26 mn tn from 24.4 mn tn when compared to the previous year. The country's production will surpass the domestic consumption in 2012-13 season that starts in October. Although the production decreased in Maharashtra and Karnataka......
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...DETAILED PROJECT REPORT OF 2500 TCD SUGAR WITH 14 MW COGENERATION PLANT For OM SUGARS PVT LTD., BC – 132 LODGE ROAD, BOGARVES CAMP, BELGAUM By Ugar Consultancy Ltd., Ugar Khurd, Tq Athani Dist Belgaum MAY 2011 Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY HIGHLIGHTS OF THE PROJECT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. INTRODUCTION NEED FOR THE PROJECT SUGAR CANE AVAILABILITY PRODUCT SALE POLICY TECHNO COMMERCIAL ASPECTS LOCATION AND SITE ASSOCIATED DETAILS TECHNICAL FEATURES (SPECIFICATIONS) OF MAJOR EQUIPMENTS 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. DESCRIPTION OF MAJOR PROCESS RISK ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT PROJECT COST ESTIMATION PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE MANPOWER REQUIREMENT LIST OF ANNEXURES 13. ANNEXURE – I KERC / KPTCL POLICY LIST OF APPENDICES 14. 15. APPENDIX – I BAGASSE ANALYSIS APPENDIX – II CANE TRASH ANALYSIS 124 125 118 – 123 85 – 97 98 – 104 105 – 109 110 – 114 115 – 117 1–8 9 – 11 12 – 16 17 – 19 20 – 36 37 – 39 40 – 47 48 – 59 60 – 84 16. 17. APPENDIX – III RICE HUSK ANALYSIS APPENDIX – IV COAL ANALYSIS LIST OF DRAWINGS 126 127 18. DRAWING – I BAGASSE BALANCE – SEASON OPERATION 128 19. 20. 21. DRAWING – II STEAM BALANCE – SEASON OPERATION DRAWING – III POWER BALANCE – SEASON OPERATION DRAWING – IV STEAM BALANCE – NON CRUSHING OPERATION 129 130 131 22. DRAWING – V POWER BALANCE – NON CRUSHING OPERATION 132 23. DRAWING – VI HEAT & MASS BALANCE - SEASON OPERATION 133 24. DRAWING – VII HEAT & MASS BALANCE – NON CRUSHING SEASON 134 25. 26.......
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...Sugar has long been an essential crop of the Caribbean countries and the news of reform has left the islands scrambling to maintain a viable economy. In order to understand how the islands economies became so dependent on sugar, it must be made clear how sugar became so important, the extent of the Caribbean's dependency on preferential pricing and how the preferences have been reformed. The sugar industry has been a part of the Caribbean since shortly after being discovered and colonized by people of the western world. Its importance can be seen through significant historical changes such as slavery, indentured servitude and finally through independence. The sugar industry creates a significant amount of jobs for the uneducated residents of the Caribbean. According to McDonald (2003) it was estimated in two thousand and three that the industry employed approximately one hundred and twenty-five thousand workers in both direct and indirect employment that otherwise may be unemployed. It served as a tourist attraction and was a major ingredient in the production of Molasses and Rum, both of which generated significant export revenues. Most importantly, sugar exported to the member countries of the European Union generated significant revenues. The European Union (EU) sugar program as it was original implemented in nineteen sixty-eight, served to facilitate competitiveness by compensating intuitional price cuts for sugar with direct income payments. The program consisted of a......
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Impact of Government Allocation on the Sugar Industry
...|Name: Ritika Kanodia | |Roll No. 30 | |Semester: 6th | |Supervisor: Mr. Shantanu P.Chakraborty | |Industry: Sugar Industry | |Title: Impact of Government allocation on the Sugar Industry | Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Undergraduate Degree in Bachelor of Business Administration (Honours) J. D. Birla Institute at the Jadavpur University at Kolkata 13/06/2011 The Controller of Examination, Jadavpur University, Kolkata Respected sir, This research work has been done by me and is an original work. The references used have been mentioned in the bibliography. My University Registration no. is 104748 of 2008-2009 and my sixth semester examination...
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.... At 5:30 am the slaves would be sent to the fields with their breakfast. A register would be called and if a slave was absent he would be beaten. Their breakfast at 8:00, consisted of Boiled Yam, Eddoes and Okra which were all seasoned with Salt and Pepper. Work on the sugar Plantation now started, this is where the majority of the Slaves worked. It continued till 12:00 and was a very tiring time. The sugar cane can range from a height of 4 feet to 12 feet or more. Knives were used to cut the stems of the cane and then were at the end of the day, carried to a sugar mill. Here a different set of workers would squeeze the sugar cane to get the precious juice that is used to create sugar. This was a very important job so the smallest mistakes would be punished severely. From 12:00 to 2:00 pm the slaves were allowed to leave their work and have dinner. These often consisted of meaty dishes, as they contain lots of protein which is needed to use muscle. .From 2:00 to 6:00 the slaves had to continue with their work. This was often the time when problems would occur. Many weak slaves would faint in the evenings from extreme heat, and overworking. If this was to happen they would be whipped. At 6:00 the slaves were allowed to return to their huts. After eating bread and butter, or some other light dinner at their hut, they would either be sent to bed, or in the summer forced to work in the boiling house. 3. When the African Slaves were enslaved, they sang slave songs.......
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...to talk about “What factors really determine the price of sugar in the USA?” based on the Financial Times article “Commodities: A sweet deal”. I divided the presentation in 3 parts. Firstly, I give a short introduction. Secondly, I speak about the determining factors and lastly I give a short summarise about the topic. [Click] 2. Slide: Ok, let’s start with the frame conditions of this topic. Sugar was once a luxury product and the demand for sweets is in our genes. Today, you can get sugar everywhere. [Click] The sugar market is one of the world’s strongest protected and supported market for agricultural products. [Click] The USA is the fifth-largest sugar producer in the world [Click] and the U.S. sugar policy used quotas and restricted imports to balance supply and demand. [Click] The purpose of these restrictions [Click] is the increase of the sugar price in the U.S. market. [Click] The question is “What really influences the sugar price in the USA?” We will see on the next slides. [Click] 3. Slide: On this slide we see on the left side the Price-Quantity-Diagram with the red supply curve and the blue demand curve, [Click] which is extensively inelastic. [Click] That’s means the percentage change in the price is higher than the percentage change in the quantity. A good example of an inelastic demand is the U.S. sugar-market, which is very price sensitive. Ok, let’s look at the supply curve. [Click] If the sugar supply rises, the supply curve shifts to the right side.......
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Scenerio Analysis of Sugar Industry in India
...sales quota in sugar industry CHENNAI: Food and agriculture minister Sharad Pawar said on Friday he favoured ending the government's role in fixing sales quota in sugar industry, adding that the government would consider withdrawing controls on the sector after assessing the likely sugar production in 2010-11 crop year. The minister said a decision on decontrolling the sugar industry could be taken if there is good production in the next crop year starting October. At present, the government controls the sugar industry right from fixing the support price of sugarcane and allocating the monthly quota for mills to sale in the open market. "We welcome the minister's statement on decontrol of the sugar market, which was long-awaited," Indian Sugar Mills Association (ISMA) deputy director general M N Rao told a news agency. Sugar industry is heavily regulated, right from cane to sale of sugar. There is a minimum support price for sugarcane and over and above that there is a state advisory price. Sugarcane command area is determined and approved by state governments. Sugar mills can't sell freely in the open market as there are quotas for open sale. "There are multiple spokes in the wheel now. Besides, with nearly 12 to 15 crore people involved with the sugar business, we need to see in what form and shape the decontrol happens. Ideally, total decontrol is the best," K Jayachandra, joint MD of Empee Sugars and Chemicals, told TOI. Pawar acknowledged that sugar sector......
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Sweet Deals: the Phillipine Sugar Industry
...Prof. Mesina 23 March 2011 Sweet Deals: The Philippine Sugar Industry History From the 19th century until 1970s, sugar has been one of the most important agricultural products in the Philippines. Philippines have been one of top exporter of sugar in the world and the sugar has been one of the pillar of the agricultural Philippine Economy. Jose Maria Zabaleta in his paper discusses the Philippines’ comparative advantage in the sugar industry: “Comparative Advantage The middle islands of the Visayas and the northernmost island of Luzon lie in the typhoon belt of the Pacific Ocean, and its eastern seaboard, often visited by as many as twenty hurricanes a year two or three of which are often considered as destructive, is not suitable for maize, many tree crops, and year round agriculture. Sugarcane, however, grows luxuriantly and well, and suffers little from typhoon damage. It is, therefore, a crop of preference not only because its product, sugar, has a long shelf life and is easily transported, but because the farmer is never really in danger of losing his entire harvest because of its resiliency.”(Jose Maria Zabaleta) Sugar started to be commercially produced in the Philippines during the 18th century. Since then the sugar industry flourished to become a major commodity for export. In the 20th century, the greater demand for sugar in the American Market resulted into growth of the industry. (Jose Maria T. Zabaleta) The United States gave......
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Corn Flour Mill Industry Characteristics Introduction
...Learning about corn flour mill(http://www.wintone-machinery.com/products/) industry characteristics and invest in corn processing industry with advisably.What’s corn flour mill industry characteristic? 1.The industry adopts electricity as the main power, has high mechanization degree, but low technology content. Flour processing in our country at present hasn’t formed a reasonable system. Less investment for professional development of science and technology for the production of flour and production equipment is relatively backward, leading to production at a lower level circulation, belong to one of the industries with excess capacity. 2. The material is given priority to with local materials, market admittance is strict. Most of the industry based on agricultural area, benefit on the acquisition of raw materials. After processing, products sell to different types of enterprises; as countries pay more and more attention to food safety, according to "food safety law" regulation, products must pass a prefecture-level flour quality and technical supervision department approval, before entering the market. 3. Low value-added products, short production cycle, simple technology. Alternative raw material is not strong, the product difference is not large, bigger production capacity, and different flour quality, types in the different sized factories, the purpose is roughly same, belong to the same target market, product production condition limited by the concentration......
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Analysing the Impact of the Introduction of Hybrid Cars on the Automobile Industry in the Uk
...student's own work and that it has not, in whole or part, been presented elsewhere for assessment. Where material has been used from other sources it has been properly acknowledged in accordance with the University's Regulations regarding Cheating and Plagiarism. 000636368 Tutor's comments Ngufor Chiawah Hilary NGUFOR CHIAWAH HILARY-000636368 Grade Awarded___________ Moderation required: yes/no For Office Use Only__________ Tutor______________________ Final Grade_________ Date _______________ ANALYSING THE IMPACT OF THE INTRODUCTION OF HYBRID CARS ON THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN THE UK Abstract Hybrid cars are an emerging aspect in contemporary automobile technology. Hybrid cars have existed for over one hundred years. However the benefits from such cars have not been acknowledged for all this time until in recent years. Generally speaking a hybrid car is one which uses two power engines to pull the vehicle. The introduction of hybrid cars has been hailed greatly, mostly by international organisations, governments, nongovernmental organisations (NGOs,) and individuals. Many car manufacturers are continuously getting involved with the production of hybrid cars with Toyota being the highest producer of the cars and having the highest sales . These cars are most used in Europe. Hybrid cars were introduced to combat the effects of the gasoline cars vis-a-vis environmental concerns, but also for political reasons. Research shows that the carbon emission......
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...Sugar I. Introduction A. Rat addicted to cocaine given two plates, one cocaine one sugar a. Rat disregards the plate of cocaine and feasts on the sugar B. What is and what makes sugar so addicting? C. Why is sugar almost unavoidable? II. What is sugar? A. Sugar is a general term used to describe a class of molecules called carbohydrates. Sugars are considered simple carbohydrates which are found in fruits and vegetables also. 1. Sugar has a very vital role in providing fuel for our neuronal nerve cells. 2. There are a lot of forms of sugar such as fructose, sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, lactose, dextrose, and more. III. How it works A. You eat the sugar 1. The sugar activates the sweet taste receptors that send signals to the brain, activating the brains reward system. This is ok, in moderation. B. The sugar hits your stomach 1. There are receptors also in the stomach that send signals to your brain. Sugar is unfortunately empty in nutrition which leaves you still hungry. C. Dopamine is released in the brain in large amounts 1. The chemical released in the brain for pleasure. But the more often you release dopamine from a particular source, the more you grow a tolerance to it. 2. Due to these releases and the tolerance build up, there are people who are susceptible to becoming addicted to these sugary food. D. When sugar is broken down in the body it becomes two simple sugars, Glucose and Fructose. a. Glucose is in every cell and is produced by our......
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...Unit 3: Introduction to Marketing Unit code: Y/502/5411 QCF Level 3: BTEC National Credit value: 10 Guided learning hours: 60 Aim and purpose The aim and purpose of this unit is to give learners an understanding of how marketing, research and planning and the marketing mix are used by all organisations. Unit introduction Marketing is at the heart of every organisation’s activity. Its importance is also growing in the non-commercial, public and voluntary sectors. Also, at the heart of marketing is the customer. This unit will introduce learners to some of the tools and techniques all types of organisations use to achieve their objectives. Firstly, learners will explore how different types of organisations use marketing principles to meet the needs of their customers and achieve their objectives. The constraints under which organisations operate are important and learners will study the legal requirements and voluntary codes that affect marketing. Learners will then go on to investigate how organisations collect data through market research and turn it into useful information which can be analysed and used to plan their marketing activities. The segmentation and targeting of groups of customers is a key marketing technique and this is studied in detail. This includes the different bases for segmentation of both consumer and business markets. Next, learners will examine how a marketing mix is developed to meet the needs and aspirations of...
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...Stage dramas are created to engage viewers and convey the themes and ideas of the playwright. Stage dramas rely largely on spoken language. Through spoken language characters are created and refined. Davis’ language choices have developed the characters in a way that portrays the characters to be exaggerated colonial stereotypes. Characters are the most vital element of a stage drama; they create the link between the audience and the drama. It is through Jack Davis’ writing that we are led to feel particular ways about most of the characters. No sugar is a play that makes an impact. Jack Davis has chosen not to construct realistic characters, but instead characters that fit into and even sometimes challenge the stereotypes placed on Aboriginal people. Although some characters are exaggerated stereotypes there are also many that aren’t. Every character is constructed in a different way, through dialogue and action. No sugar focuses on the hardships faced by an - albeit stereotypical of the 1930’s - Aboriginal family during the continued colonisation of Australia. Gran is the matriarchal figure of the family; she is the one that tries to ensure the continuation of the Nyoongah culture. She is characterised as strong and often stubborn. Her stubborn attitude throughout the play represents, in some ways, Aboriginal stereotypes. The way that Davis has constructed her creates a bond between her and the audience; the audience becomes attached to her. Through Davis’ choice, Gran’s...
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...How Sugar is Made - the History It is thought that cane sugar was first used by man in Polynesia from where it spread to India. In 510 BC the Emperor Darius of what was then Persia invaded India where he found "the reed which gives honey without bees". The secret of cane sugar, as with many other of man's discoveries, was kept a closely guarded secret whilst the finished product was exported for a rich profit. It was the major expansion of the Arab peoples in the seventh century AD that led to a breaking of the secret. When they invaded Persia in 642 AD they found sugar cane being grown and learnt how sugar was made. As their expansion continued they established sugar production in other lands that they conquered including North Africa and Spain. Sugar was only discovered by western Europeans as a result of the Crusades in the 11th Century AD. Crusaders returning home talked of this "new spice" and how pleasant it was. The first sugar was recorded in England in 1099. The subsequent centuries saw a major expansion of western European trade with the East, including the importation of sugar. It is recorded, for instance, that sugar was available in London at "two shillings a pound" in 1319 AD. This equates to about US$100 per kilo at today's prices so it was very much a luxury. In the 15th century AD, European sugar was refined in Venice, confirmation that even then when quantities were small, it was difficult to transport sugar as a food grade product....
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Today India is one among the top ten industrial nations of the world. Industrial development has changed India’s economy from under-developed status to developing status.
Industries can be classified into various types on the basis of their structure. The two main types are: 1) Manufacturing industries including heavy and light industries. 2) Small-scale and cottage industries .
Manufacturing industries: Industries which are concerned with the processing or conversion of raw materials into finished products are called manufacturing industries.
IMPORTANCE OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES:
1) Manufacturing industries increase the national income and per capita income. Industrial development increases the employment opportunities to a large number of people and thus increases their income. 2) Industrial development solves the problems of un-employment and under employment which are some of the major problems of India. 3) Industrial development promotes agricultural development. Many industries are agro-based industries. Agricultural products are raw materials for these industries. Development of these industries enables agriculture to increase its production.
4) Industrial development helps to utilise the natural resources, such as mineral resources, water resources, forest resources and other natural resources. Utilisation of these natural resources helps in the progress 0f the country. 5) Many institutions belonging to the tertiary sector are also developed as a result of industrial development. e.g. Banking, education, insurance, transport and communication.
6) Countries which depend only on agriculture have low standard of living. But countries which have developed both in agriculture and industries have well balanced economic system.
7) Industrialisation helps both the domestic and foreign trade of a nation. Many goods, which we produce are exported to other countries and help us to earn foreign exchange. It also reduces our dependence on foreign countries for many goods.
8) Generally industries are located in towns and cities, this enables the towns and cities to become trade and cultural centres.
9) Arms and ammunition required for the defence of the country need to be produced in the country itself. We cannot depend on other countries for these arms and ammunition. Industries manufacture tankers, aeroplanes, explosives, guns, bullets and many other defence requirements and thus help to strengthen the defence of the country.
10) Increase of industries helps in the increase of income of the government because they pay taxes and duties to thegovernment.
Facilities available for industrial development in India:
1) India has plenty of natural resources like forests, minerals, power resources, water resources etc. which are required for industrial development. 2) India has large human resource, which can provide cheap labour. The large population of India also provides market for industrial products. 3) India is an agricultural country. Agriculture provides raw materials for many industries and agriculture is the chief market for industrial products.
Industrial development in India:Ancient India had made great progress in industries. Manufacture of cloth, gunny bags, paper and other industries were well developed in India. Example: Muslin cloth of Dacca, chintzes of Masulipatnam, Calicos of Calicut and Gold embroidery of Surat. All these goods were manufactured in cottage industries. During the British period all these industries suffered. The industrial policy of the British and the Industrial Revolution in England were the main causes for the decline of our industries. However few modern manufacturing industries were started during the British period.Important among them were a cotton textile mill at Bombay in 1854, a Jute mill in Calcutta in 1855 and another cotton textile mill at Ahmedabad. A paper mill was started near Calcutta in 1867 and smelting of iron ore at Kulti in West Bengal in 1870. Availability of raw materials and cheap labour were responsible for the establishment of these industries. Our industrial progress was very slow until the First World War. After the First World War, industries like iron and steel, chemicals, sugar, cement and machine tools were started. After Independence, our industries made great progress. The Five Year Plans were started for all-round economic development and today India occupies an important place in world industrial development.
Factors for the location of Industries:The factors for the location of industries are availability of raw materials, power resources, transport and communication facilities, skilled and unskilled labour, favourable climate, capital, water resources, market and Government policy. All these facilities may not be found in one region, but a combination of these factors leads to the location of industries.
Industrial regions of India:Based on the factors mentioned above, four main industrial regions are found in India. They are,
1) West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh
2) Maharashtra and Gujarat
3) Central Gangetic region
4) South India
Jharkhand, West Bengal and Chhattisgarh region: It is also known as Damodar-Hooghli region. The region includes Chotanagpur plateau which has large deposits of minerals like iron ore, coal, manganese, mica and bauxite. Port facilities, power resources and availability of cheap labour are the other factors.
Maharashtra – Gujarat region: It has extensive cotton growing areas. There are good transport and port facilities, hydro-electric power, labour force and facilities for capital investment. Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Surat, Sholapur are noted for cotton manufacture.
Central Gangetic region: This region produces plenty of raw materials required for agro-based industries. The Plain region has made possible for the development of roads and railways. High density of population has provided market and labour supply.
South India: The industries are spread over many towns and cities of South India. Many types of industries have been developed. Availability of raw materials, hydro-electric power, market and labour force have helped the growth of many industries. Bangalore, Chennai, Coimbatore, Salem and Hyderabad are the important industrial centres.
IMPORTANT INDUSTRIESManufacturing industries are divided into two types on the basis of the raw materials that they use. They are
1) Agro-based industries
2) Mineral-based industries
1) AGRO-BASED INDUSTRIES: The important agro-based industries are cotton textiles, jute, sugar and paper.
The first cotton textile mill on modern lines was started in Bombay in 1854. Later, mills were started at Ahmedabad in 1858, then in Kanpur, Nagpur, Sholapur, Surat and other places. Today India holds the third place among the cotton textile producing countries of the world. It provides mployment to a large number of people and also helps to earn foreign exchange. Gujarat and Maharashtra states, lead the country in cotton textile production. Mumbai and Ahmedabad are the important centres. Mumbai has the largest number of cotton textile mills. It is the main cotton textile centre in India. Mumbai is called cottonopolis or Manchester of India. (Manchester is the main cotton textile centre in England) The other important centres of cotton textiles are Nagpur and Sholapur in Maharashtra, Kolkata in West Bengal, Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh, Indore in Madhya Pradesh, Surat in Gujarat, Salem, Coimbatore and Chennai in Tamilnadu, Bangalore and Davangere in Karnataka and Delhi. Handloom industry
Handloom industry is concentrated in Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Assam and Uttar Pradesh. In recent years ready-made cotton garment industry has been developing fast and earns a good amount of foreign exchange. Cotton textiles and ready-made garments are exported from India to foreign markets. Europe, the U.S.A., and many countries of Africa and Australia are our main markets. Rough cotton cloth and cotton thread are exported to Myanmar, Middle East, Thailand and other countries.
Jute industry occupies an important place in the industrial progress of India. It has provided employment to about 25 lakh workers. India produces 35 % of the total jute products of the world. Its share in earning foreign exchange is also important. The first jute mill was started at Rishra near Kolkata in 1855. Being an export oriented industry, it grew very fast. The partition of India struck a heavy blow to the jute industry. Most of the jute mills remained in India and the jute growing areas went to East Pakistan (Bangladesh). Now attempts have been made to grow jute in the Gangetic delta of West Bengal, in Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Orissa. Jute mills are largely concentrated in lower Hooghly basin. The main reasons for this concentration are availability of raw jute, fresh water, cheap water transport, power resources, cheap labour, capital and port facilities. In recent years, jute mills have also been located in Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh. The main jute products are gunny bags, jute cloth, tarpaulins, ropes and cordages (required for cable industry). India exports jute products to the U.S.A Britain, Canada, Argentina and Russia.
Sugar Industry: Sugar has been used in India since a very long time. India produces White sugar, Khandsari and Gur or Jaggery. It provides employment to about 2.5 lakh people in India and also earns foreign exchange. Modern sugar mills were started in 1931. Sugarcane, which is the raw material for sugar industry, is a perishable and weight losing raw material. The Sugar factories are located wherever sugarcane is grown. Sugar factories are concentrated in the Gangetic plain (Uttar Pradesh and Bihar). The other states where sugar factories are found are Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. The sugarcane of Peninsular India yields more sugar than the North Indian sugarcane. There are 37 sugar factories in Karnataka. The districts of Mandya, Belgaum and Bellary have a large number of sugar factories. Gorakhpur districts of Uttar Pradesh has the largest number of sugar mills and is called “Java of India”. India exports sugar to the U.S.A, Britain, Iran, Malaysia and Canada.
Paper manufacturing had been carried on in India as a cottage industry since ancient times. As a manufacturing industry it was first started in 1867 at Bally near Kolkata. There were only 15 paper mills before independence. Softwood, bamboo, sabai grass, straw, bagasse, soft water and chemicals are the raw materials required for paper industry. Owing to very limited forest as raw materials. The chemicals required for paper industry are caustic soda, soda ash, sodium sulphate, chlorine and sulphuric acid. West Bengal has the largest number of paper mills in India. The reasons for it are, availability of raw materials, coal and electricity, abundant supply of soft water, supply of capital and availability of cheap labour. The important centres are Kolkata, Titagarh, Raniganj and Kakinada. In Karnataka the paper mills are located at Dandeli, Bhadravathi, Mandya etc. Nepanagar in Madhya Pradesh is an important producer of newsprint. The production of paper in India is not sufficient to meet the demand, so large quantities of paper are imported from other countries.
MINERAL- BASED INDUSTRIES:
The important mineral-based industries of India are iron and steel, heavy engineering and machinery, machine tools,transport equipment, chemicals, chemical fertilizers and cement industries.
Iron and steel industry:
Indians knew the art of smelting iron ore since early times. Modern steel industry was first started at Kulti in West Bengal in 1874. But the real beginning of Iron and Steel industry was made in 1907 at Jamshedpur in Bihar (present Jharkhand) by the Tatas, called Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO). Again in 1919 a steel plant was set up at Burnpur in West Bengal called Indian Iron and Steel Company (ISCO) and at Bhadravathi in Karnataka in 1923 called Mysore Iron and Steel Company (MISCO). Now it is called Vishweswaraiah Iron and Steel Company (VISCO). After Independence during the Second Five Year Plan period, three big Iron and Steel plants were established at Bhilai in Madhya Pradesh (now in Chhattisgarh) Rourkela in Orissa and Durgapur in West Bengal. During the Third Five Year Plan, a very big steel plant was established at Bokaro in Bihar ( now in Jharkhand).
The fourth five year plan proposed to start three more steel plants at Salem, Vijayanagar and Vishakhapatnam. The Salem and Vishakhapatnam steel plants have started production but Vijayanagar steel plant was entrusted to the private sector and production is in the beginning stage. Tata Iron and Steel Company and Vijayanagar steel plant are under the private sector. The others are under the public sector. To encourage and extend iron and steel industry under both private and public sectors, Steel Authority of India was established in 1973. All the raw materials required for iron and steel industry like iron ore, manganese, limestone and coal are bulky and weight-losing. So this industry is located near the regions where the raw materials are found in abundance. The finished products are also heavy and need good transport system for their distribution. Iron and steel industry is concentrated around the Chotanagpur plateau which is rich in most of the raw materials required and therefore Chotanagpur plateau is called the Rhur of India. (Rhur region in Germany is noted for iron and steel industry). India exports a large quantity of steel and cast iron to Britain, the U.S.A and Japan.
There was a time when we were dependent on other countries for various types of engineering goods. Since Independence great progress has been achieved in this field and now we manufacture machinery required to manufacture goods. A heavy engineering plant is established at Ranchi in Jharkhand, which manufactures various machines required by us and also machinery for export. Hindustan Machine Tools at Bangalore manufactures a wide variety of machine tools and tractors. Machines required to manufacture cement and chemicals are manufactured at Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh.
Heavy electrical equipment industry:
India produces many types of electrical equipment. Heavy electrical motors, transformers, water wheels, electric fans etc., are manufactured at Bhopal, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Tiruchinapalli and otherplaces. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) has set up its plants at differentplaces. One such plant is in Bangalore. Transport and equipment Industry:
India has made good progress in this industry also. It is engaged in the production of automobiles, railway engines, railway coaches, railway wheels and axles and ships. Chittaranjan in West Bengal manufactures electrical and diesel locomotives, Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh produces diesel locomotives, Perambur near Chennai produces railway coaches. Mumbai, Kolkata, Kochi, Vishakahpatnam and Marmagoa are the major ship building centres. Aircraft industry has been developed at Bangalore, Hyderabad and Kanpur. Maruthi Udyog near Delhi produces motor cars. Kolkata(West Bengal), Jamshedpur(Jharkhand), Hosur in Tamllnadu (Leyland) and Bangalore in Karnataka (Volvo) are noted for the manufacture of motor vehicles. The railway wheel and axle plant is at Yelhanka near Bangalore.
Many chemicals are required for the production of rayon, rubber, paper, glass, soap, chemical fertilizers and insecticides. Except for sulphur, the other raw materials are available in India for the production of chemicals. After Independence great progress has been made in this direction. At present, there are more than three hundred chemical factories spread all over India. Mumbai, Kolkata, Kanpur, Bangalore, Chennai and Ahmedabad are the important centres of this industry. Sulphuric acid, caustic soda, soda ash, bleaching powder and soaps are produced in our country.
Chemical fertilizer industry:
Chemical fertilizers are very essential to improve the fertility of the soil and to increase the production in agriculture. India being a predominantly an agricultural nation, production of chemical fertilizers is necessary. Complex fertilizers like urea, ammonium sulphate and nitrates are produced in India. The bi-products of coal, and oil refineries are used as raw materials in this industry. Now natural gas is also used as a raw material. The first chemical fertilizer factory in India was started at Belagola near Mysore (Mysore fertilizers). The next factory was started at Travancore (Alwaye) in Kerala called Fertilizer and Chemicals Travancore Ltd. (FACTS). Now there are more than one hundred fertilizer factories under both public and private sectors. Some of the important fertilizer factories under the public sector are at Sindri (Jharkhand), Nangal (Punjab), Trombay (Maharashtra), Gorakhpur (Uttar Pradesh). Rourkela (Orissa), Neyveli (Tamilnadu), Durgapur (West Bengal), Kochi (Kerala) and Mangalore (Karnataka). Though the production of fertilizers has increased over the past few years, still it is not sufficient and we import fertilizers from other countries.
Cement is the most essential commodity for construction work after iron and steel. For the construction of buildings, roads, river valley projects, bridges etc., cement is very necessary along with iron. That is why the consumption of cement is the index for the rate of development of a country. The first cement factory was set up at Chennai in 1904. It used seashells as raw material. Now limestone, coal and gypsum are the main raw materials. As the raw materials are heavy, the cement factories are generally located close to the source of raw materials. Cement factories are located all over India, because the raw materials are available throughout the country. There are about 150 cement factories in India. Most of the cement factories are in Tamilnadu, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Bihar, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Most of the factories are under the private sector. In Karnataka, Associated Cement Company near Gulbarga, Mysore Cement Company in Bhadravathi, Diamond Cement factory at Ammasandra near Tumkur are important. India is self sufficient in cement production. We also export cement to Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Myanmar, Afghanistan, Iran etc.
EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA:
You have already studied that India has made industrial progress. This development has resulted in some good and bad effects.
Good effects: Industrialisation has changed India into a developing nation and to-day India is one of the ten industrially advanced nations of the World. Industrialisation has increased production through the utilization of unused natural resources. It has reduced to some extent the population that would have been dependent on agriculture. The industrial centres have become the centres of education, culture and trade. Industrialisation has enabled us to become selfreliantwith regard to many goods for which we were depending on other countries earlier. It has affected our foreign trade also and we are able to export many goods to other countries. Import of many goods has been stopped or reduced. The National Income and per capita income has increased. We have achieved development in the field of technology also. There is great progress in the field of Banking, Transport and Communication and Insurance. The foreign countries are attracted and they are investing their capital in our industries. The non-resident Indians are also investing capital and hence the investment of capital has considerably increased.
Bad effects: The industrial centres attract population from rural areas and the density of population has increased in industrial centres. Lack of housing facilities has created many slums. The slum dwellers are suffering from lack of healthfacilities, housing, sanitation and water. The slums have become the centres of many anti-social activities. Recently in almost all the states, the Slum Development Boards have been set up to improve the conditions of slum dwellers. Excessive use of Technology and Computers in industries, has resulted in the removal of workers and this has become a big problem. There is a fear that the foreign capital investment may result in the economic exploitation of the country